Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is mainly characterized by aberrant extracellular matrix deposition, consequent to epithelial lung injury and myofibroblast activation, and inflammatory response. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a serine–threonine kinase involved in several pathways, and its inhibition has been already suggested as a therapeutic strategy for IPF patients. There is evidence that GSK-3 is able to induce matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and that its inhibition modulates MMP expression in the tissues. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of GSK-3 and its inhibition in the modulation of MMP-9 and -2 in an in vivo mouse model of lung fibrosis and in vitro using different cell lines exposed to pro-inflammatory or pro-fibrotic stimuli. We found that GSK-3 inhibition down-modulates gene expression and protein levels of MMP-9, MMP-2, and their inhibitors TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in inflammatory cells harvested from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of mice treated with bleomycin as well as in interstitial alveolar macrophages and cuboidalized epithelial alveolar cells. To the same extent, GSK-3 inhibition blunted the increased MMP-9 and MMP-2 activity induced by pro-fibrotic stimuli in a human lung fibroblast cell line. Moreover, the αSMA protein level, a marker of fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition involved in fibrosis, was decreased in primary fibroblasts treated with TGFβ following GSK-3 inhibition. Our results confirm the implication of GSK-3 in lung inflammation and fibrosis, suggesting that it might play its role by modulating MMP expression and activity but also pushing fibroblasts toward a myofibroblast phenotype and therefore enhancing extracellular matrix deposition. Thus, its inhibition could represent a possible therapeutic strategy.

GSK-3 Inhibition Modulates Metalloproteases in a Model of Lung Inflammation and Fibrosis

Cinetto F.;Ceccato J.;Caputo I.;Cangiano D.;Montini B.;Lunardi F.;Piazza M.;Agostini C.;Calabrese F.;Semenzato G.;Rattazzi M.;Gurrieri C.;Scarpa R.;Felice C.
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Vianello F.
2021

Abstract

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is mainly characterized by aberrant extracellular matrix deposition, consequent to epithelial lung injury and myofibroblast activation, and inflammatory response. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a serine–threonine kinase involved in several pathways, and its inhibition has been already suggested as a therapeutic strategy for IPF patients. There is evidence that GSK-3 is able to induce matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and that its inhibition modulates MMP expression in the tissues. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of GSK-3 and its inhibition in the modulation of MMP-9 and -2 in an in vivo mouse model of lung fibrosis and in vitro using different cell lines exposed to pro-inflammatory or pro-fibrotic stimuli. We found that GSK-3 inhibition down-modulates gene expression and protein levels of MMP-9, MMP-2, and their inhibitors TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in inflammatory cells harvested from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of mice treated with bleomycin as well as in interstitial alveolar macrophages and cuboidalized epithelial alveolar cells. To the same extent, GSK-3 inhibition blunted the increased MMP-9 and MMP-2 activity induced by pro-fibrotic stimuli in a human lung fibroblast cell line. Moreover, the αSMA protein level, a marker of fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition involved in fibrosis, was decreased in primary fibroblasts treated with TGFβ following GSK-3 inhibition. Our results confirm the implication of GSK-3 in lung inflammation and fibrosis, suggesting that it might play its role by modulating MMP expression and activity but also pushing fibroblasts toward a myofibroblast phenotype and therefore enhancing extracellular matrix deposition. Thus, its inhibition could represent a possible therapeutic strategy.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3396861
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