This paper proposes a real-time nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) strategy for direct yaw moment control (DYC) of distributed drive electric vehicles (DDEVs). The NMPC strategy is based on a control-oriented model built by integrating a single track vehicle model with the Magic Formula (MF) tire model. To mitigate the NMPC computational cost, the continuation/generalized minimal residual (C/GMRES) algorithm is employed and modified for real-time optimization. Since the traditional C/GMRES algorithm cannot directly solve the inequality constraint problem, the external penalty method is introduced to transform inequality constraints into an equivalently unconstrained optimization problem. Based on the Pontryagin's minimum principle (PMP), the existence and uniqueness for solution of the proposed C/GMRES algorithm are proven. Additionally, to achieve fast initialization in C/GMRES algorithm, the varying predictive duration is adopted so that the analytic expressions of optimally initial solutions in C/GMRES algorithm can be derived and gained. A Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) condition based control allocation method distributes the desired traction and yaw moment among four independent motors. Numerical simulations are carried out by combining CarSim and Matlab/Simulink to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. Results demonstrate that the real-time NMPC strategy can achieve superior vehicle stability performance, guarantee the given safety constraints, and significantly reduce the computational efforts.

A Real-Time Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller for Yaw Motion Optimization of Distributed Drive Electric Vehicles

Lenzo B.;
2020

Abstract

This paper proposes a real-time nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) strategy for direct yaw moment control (DYC) of distributed drive electric vehicles (DDEVs). The NMPC strategy is based on a control-oriented model built by integrating a single track vehicle model with the Magic Formula (MF) tire model. To mitigate the NMPC computational cost, the continuation/generalized minimal residual (C/GMRES) algorithm is employed and modified for real-time optimization. Since the traditional C/GMRES algorithm cannot directly solve the inequality constraint problem, the external penalty method is introduced to transform inequality constraints into an equivalently unconstrained optimization problem. Based on the Pontryagin's minimum principle (PMP), the existence and uniqueness for solution of the proposed C/GMRES algorithm are proven. Additionally, to achieve fast initialization in C/GMRES algorithm, the varying predictive duration is adopted so that the analytic expressions of optimally initial solutions in C/GMRES algorithm can be derived and gained. A Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) condition based control allocation method distributes the desired traction and yaw moment among four independent motors. Numerical simulations are carried out by combining CarSim and Matlab/Simulink to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. Results demonstrate that the real-time NMPC strategy can achieve superior vehicle stability performance, guarantee the given safety constraints, and significantly reduce the computational efforts.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3402862
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