Natural variations in milk minerals, their relationships, and their associations with the coagulation process and cheese-making traits present an opportunity for the differentiation of milk destined for high-quality natural products, such as traditional specialties or Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheeses. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of the native contents of Ca, P, Na, K, and Mg on 18 traits describing traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP), curd firming over time (CFt) equation parameters, cheese yield (CY) measures, and nutrient recoveries in the curd (REC) using models that either included or omitted the simultaneous effects of milk fat and casein contents. The results showed that, by including milk fat and casein and the minerals in the statistical model, we were able to determine the specific effects of each mineral on coagulation and cheese-making efficiency. In general, about two-thirds of the apparent effects of the minerals on MCP and the CFt equation parameters are actually mediated by their association with milk composition, especially casein content, whereas only one-third of the effects are direct and independent of milk composition. In the case of cheese-making traits, the effects of the minerals were mediated only negligibly by their association with milk composition. High Ca content had a positive effect on the coagulation pattern and cheese-making traits, favoring water retention in the curd in particular. Phosphorus positively affected the cheese-making traits in that it was associated with an increase in CY in terms of curd solids, and in all the nutrient recovery traits. However, a very high P content in milk was associated with lower fat recovery in the curd. The variation in the Na content in milk only mildly affected coagulation, whereas with regard to cheese-making, protein recovery was negatively associated with high concentrations of this mineral. Potassium seemed not to be actively involved in coagulation and the cheese-making process. Magnesium content tended to slow coagulation and reduce CY measures. Further studies on the relationships of minerals with casein and protein fractions could deepen our knowledge of the role of all minerals in coagulation and the cheese-making process.

The mineral profile affects the coagulation pattern and cheese-making efficiency of bovine milk

Cecchinato, Alessio;Amalfitano, Nicolò;Bittante, Giovanni
2021

Abstract

Natural variations in milk minerals, their relationships, and their associations with the coagulation process and cheese-making traits present an opportunity for the differentiation of milk destined for high-quality natural products, such as traditional specialties or Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheeses. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of the native contents of Ca, P, Na, K, and Mg on 18 traits describing traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP), curd firming over time (CFt) equation parameters, cheese yield (CY) measures, and nutrient recoveries in the curd (REC) using models that either included or omitted the simultaneous effects of milk fat and casein contents. The results showed that, by including milk fat and casein and the minerals in the statistical model, we were able to determine the specific effects of each mineral on coagulation and cheese-making efficiency. In general, about two-thirds of the apparent effects of the minerals on MCP and the CFt equation parameters are actually mediated by their association with milk composition, especially casein content, whereas only one-third of the effects are direct and independent of milk composition. In the case of cheese-making traits, the effects of the minerals were mediated only negligibly by their association with milk composition. High Ca content had a positive effect on the coagulation pattern and cheese-making traits, favoring water retention in the curd in particular. Phosphorus positively affected the cheese-making traits in that it was associated with an increase in CY in terms of curd solids, and in all the nutrient recovery traits. However, a very high P content in milk was associated with lower fat recovery in the curd. The variation in the Na content in milk only mildly affected coagulation, whereas with regard to cheese-making, protein recovery was negatively associated with high concentrations of this mineral. Potassium seemed not to be actively involved in coagulation and the cheese-making process. Magnesium content tended to slow coagulation and reduce CY measures. Further studies on the relationships of minerals with casein and protein fractions could deepen our knowledge of the role of all minerals in coagulation and the cheese-making process.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.
Pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3409561
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 1
  • Scopus 2
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 2
social impact