The expanded use of copper(I)-based antifouling paints (AF) has increased copper leaching into coastal environments, requiring attention and legislative restrictions for potential long-term effects on benthic populations. The ecological succession of macrofouling communities was analysed on wooden and stainless steel panels coated with four copper(I)-based AF (Paints A–D) immersed for 10 months in the Lagoon of Venice. With the exception of Paint B, which contained only copper(I) compounds and was based on hard-matrix technology, the other paints were based on self-polishing matrices and various booster biocides. The booster content was a mix of TBT compounds for Paint A, dichlofluanid for Paint C, Irgarol 1051, and chlorothalonil for Paint D. The macrofouling communities appeared dissimilar to those on the reference uncoated panels as regard the species richness, the coverage areas, and the biocoenosis structure. Generally, green algae, bryozoans, and barnacles were the most tolerant taxa and a negative species selection occurred for sponges, serpulids, and ascidians. Paints A and D showed the highest performance, and Paint D also prevented molluscs on wood panels. Paints B and C rapidly decreased their efficiency, the first probably due to the insoluble matrix with the highest biocidal leaching rate, and the second due to the presence of a booster with low toxicity. Paint B also inhibited red algae and molluscs, but Paint C did not reveal significant differences in types of species settlements with reference panels.

Potential disruptive effects of copper-based antifouling paints on the biodiversity of coastal macrofouling communities

Cima F.
Conceptualization
;
Varello R.
Formal Analysis
2022

Abstract

The expanded use of copper(I)-based antifouling paints (AF) has increased copper leaching into coastal environments, requiring attention and legislative restrictions for potential long-term effects on benthic populations. The ecological succession of macrofouling communities was analysed on wooden and stainless steel panels coated with four copper(I)-based AF (Paints A–D) immersed for 10 months in the Lagoon of Venice. With the exception of Paint B, which contained only copper(I) compounds and was based on hard-matrix technology, the other paints were based on self-polishing matrices and various booster biocides. The booster content was a mix of TBT compounds for Paint A, dichlofluanid for Paint C, Irgarol 1051, and chlorothalonil for Paint D. The macrofouling communities appeared dissimilar to those on the reference uncoated panels as regard the species richness, the coverage areas, and the biocoenosis structure. Generally, green algae, bryozoans, and barnacles were the most tolerant taxa and a negative species selection occurred for sponges, serpulids, and ascidians. Paints A and D showed the highest performance, and Paint D also prevented molluscs on wood panels. Paints B and C rapidly decreased their efficiency, the first probably due to the insoluble matrix with the highest biocidal leaching rate, and the second due to the presence of a booster with low toxicity. Paint B also inhibited red algae and molluscs, but Paint C did not reveal significant differences in types of species settlements with reference panels.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3415943
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