To evaluate the effects of antifouling paints and biocides on larval settlement and metamor-phosis, newly hatched swimming larvae of the compound ascidian Botryllus schlosseri, a dominant species of soft-fouling in coastal communities, were exposed to (i) substrata coated with seven an-tifouling paints on the market containing different biocidal mixtures and types of matrices and (ii) sea water containing various concentrations of eight biocidal constituents. All antifouling paints showed high performance, causing 100% mortality and metamorphic inhibition, with ≥75% not-settled dead larvae. All antifouling biocides prevented the settlement of larvae. The most severe larval malformations, i.e., (i) the formation of a bubble encasing the cephalenteron and (ii) the inhibition of tail resorption, were observed after exposure to metal and organometal compounds, including tributyltin (TBT) at 1 µM (325.5 µg L−1 ), zinc pyrithione (ZnP) at 1 µM (317.7 µg L−1 ), and CuCl at 0.1 µM (98.99 µg L−1 ), and to antimicrobials and fungicides, including Sea-Nine 211 at 1 µM (282.2 µg L−1 ) and Chlorothalonil at 1 µM (265.9 µg L−1 ). The herbicides seemed to be less active. Irgarol 1051 was not lethal at any of the concentrations tested. Diuron at 250 µM (58.2 mg L−1 ) and 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-4-(methylsulphonyl)pyridine (TCMS pyridine) at 50 µM (14.8 mg L−1 ) completely inhibited larval metamorphosis. These results may have important implications for the practical use of different antifouling components, highlighting the importance of their testing for negative impacts on native benthic species.

Effects of Exposure to Trade Antifouling Paints and Biocides on Larval Settlement and Metamorphosis of the Compound Ascidian Botryllus schlosseri

Cima F.
Conceptualization
;
Varello R.
Investigation
2022

Abstract

To evaluate the effects of antifouling paints and biocides on larval settlement and metamor-phosis, newly hatched swimming larvae of the compound ascidian Botryllus schlosseri, a dominant species of soft-fouling in coastal communities, were exposed to (i) substrata coated with seven an-tifouling paints on the market containing different biocidal mixtures and types of matrices and (ii) sea water containing various concentrations of eight biocidal constituents. All antifouling paints showed high performance, causing 100% mortality and metamorphic inhibition, with ≥75% not-settled dead larvae. All antifouling biocides prevented the settlement of larvae. The most severe larval malformations, i.e., (i) the formation of a bubble encasing the cephalenteron and (ii) the inhibition of tail resorption, were observed after exposure to metal and organometal compounds, including tributyltin (TBT) at 1 µM (325.5 µg L−1 ), zinc pyrithione (ZnP) at 1 µM (317.7 µg L−1 ), and CuCl at 0.1 µM (98.99 µg L−1 ), and to antimicrobials and fungicides, including Sea-Nine 211 at 1 µM (282.2 µg L−1 ) and Chlorothalonil at 1 µM (265.9 µg L−1 ). The herbicides seemed to be less active. Irgarol 1051 was not lethal at any of the concentrations tested. Diuron at 250 µM (58.2 mg L−1 ) and 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-4-(methylsulphonyl)pyridine (TCMS pyridine) at 50 µM (14.8 mg L−1 ) completely inhibited larval metamorphosis. These results may have important implications for the practical use of different antifouling components, highlighting the importance of their testing for negative impacts on native benthic species.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3415944
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