In physiological conditions, the adipose organ resides in well-defined areas, where it acts providing an energy supply and as an endocrine organ involved in the control of whole-body energy metabolism. Adipose tissue adipokines connect the body’s nutritional status to the regulation of energy balance. When it surrounds organs, it provides also for mechanical protection. Adipose tissue has a complex and heterogenous cellular composition that includes adipocytes, adipose tissue-derived stromal and stem cells (ASCs) which are mesenchymal stromal cells, and endothelial and immune cells, which signal to each other and to other tissues to maintain homeostasis. In obesity and in other nutrition related diseases, as well as in age-related diseases, biological and functional changes of adipose tissue give rise to several complications. Obesity triggers alterations of ASCs, impairing adipose tissue remodeling and adipose tissue function, which induces low-grade systemic inflammation, progressive insulin resistance and other metabolic disorders. Adipose tissue grows by hyperplasia recruiting new ASCs and by hypertrophy, up to its expandability limit. To overcome this limitation and to store the excess of nutrients, adipose tissue develops ectopically, involving organs such as muscle, bone marrow and the heart. The origin of ectopic adipose organ is not clearly elucidated, and a possible explanation lies in the stimulation of the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal precursor cells which normally differentiate toward a lineage specific for the organ in which they reside. The chronic exposition of these newly-formed adipose depots to the pathological environment, will confer to them all the phenotypic characteristics of a dysfunctional adipose tissue, perpetuating the organ alterations. Visceral fat, but also ectopic fat, either in the liver, muscle or heart, can increase the risk of developing insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Being able to prevent and to target dysfunctional adipose tissue will avoid the progression towards the complications of obesity and other nutrition-related diseases. The aim of this review is to summarize some of the knowledge regarding the presence of adipose tissue in particular tissues (where it is not usually present), describing the composition of its adipogenic precursors, and the interactions responsible for the development of organ pathologies.

Adipogenic progenitors in different organs: Pathophysiological implications

Favaretto F.;Bettini S.;Busetto L.;Milan G.;Vettor R.
2022

Abstract

In physiological conditions, the adipose organ resides in well-defined areas, where it acts providing an energy supply and as an endocrine organ involved in the control of whole-body energy metabolism. Adipose tissue adipokines connect the body’s nutritional status to the regulation of energy balance. When it surrounds organs, it provides also for mechanical protection. Adipose tissue has a complex and heterogenous cellular composition that includes adipocytes, adipose tissue-derived stromal and stem cells (ASCs) which are mesenchymal stromal cells, and endothelial and immune cells, which signal to each other and to other tissues to maintain homeostasis. In obesity and in other nutrition related diseases, as well as in age-related diseases, biological and functional changes of adipose tissue give rise to several complications. Obesity triggers alterations of ASCs, impairing adipose tissue remodeling and adipose tissue function, which induces low-grade systemic inflammation, progressive insulin resistance and other metabolic disorders. Adipose tissue grows by hyperplasia recruiting new ASCs and by hypertrophy, up to its expandability limit. To overcome this limitation and to store the excess of nutrients, adipose tissue develops ectopically, involving organs such as muscle, bone marrow and the heart. The origin of ectopic adipose organ is not clearly elucidated, and a possible explanation lies in the stimulation of the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal precursor cells which normally differentiate toward a lineage specific for the organ in which they reside. The chronic exposition of these newly-formed adipose depots to the pathological environment, will confer to them all the phenotypic characteristics of a dysfunctional adipose tissue, perpetuating the organ alterations. Visceral fat, but also ectopic fat, either in the liver, muscle or heart, can increase the risk of developing insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Being able to prevent and to target dysfunctional adipose tissue will avoid the progression towards the complications of obesity and other nutrition-related diseases. The aim of this review is to summarize some of the knowledge regarding the presence of adipose tissue in particular tissues (where it is not usually present), describing the composition of its adipogenic precursors, and the interactions responsible for the development of organ pathologies.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3419063
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