Human milk contains <50% less protein (casein) than cow milk but is equally effective in insulin secretion despite lower post ingestion hyperaminoacidemia. Such potency of human milk might be modulated either by incretins (glucagon-like polypeptide-1, GLP-1); glucose-inhibitory-polypeptide, GIP), and/or by milk casein content. Healthy volunteers of both sexes were fed iso-lactose loads of two low-protein milks, i.e., human [Hum] (n = 8) and casein-deprived cow milk (Cow [↓Cas]) (n = 10), as well as loads of two high-protein milks, i.e., cow (n = 7), and casein-added human-milk (Hum [↑Cas]) (n = 7). Plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, incretins and amino acid concentrations were measured for 240′. All milks induced the same transient hyperglycemia. The early [20′–30′] insulin and C-peptide responses were comparable among all milk types apart from the low-protein (Cow [↓Cas]) milk, where they were reduced by <50% (p < 0.05 vs. others). When comparing the two high-protein milks, GLP-1 and GIP [5’–20’] responses with the (Hum [↑Cas]) milk were lower (by ≈2–3 fold, p < 0.007 and p < 0.03 respectively) than those with cow milk, whereas incretin secretion was substantially similar. Plasma amino acid increments largely reflected the milk protein content. Thus, neither casein milk content, nor incretin or amino acid concentrations, can account for the specific potency of human milk on insulin secretion, which remains as yet unresolved

Neither Incretin or Amino Acid Responses, nor Casein Content, Account for the Equal Insulin Response Following Iso-Lactose Loads of Natural Human and Cow Milk in Healthy Young Adults

Paolo Tessari;Alessandro Toffolon;Monica Vettore;Elisabetta Iori;Anna Lante;Giovanna Verlato;
2022

Abstract

Human milk contains <50% less protein (casein) than cow milk but is equally effective in insulin secretion despite lower post ingestion hyperaminoacidemia. Such potency of human milk might be modulated either by incretins (glucagon-like polypeptide-1, GLP-1); glucose-inhibitory-polypeptide, GIP), and/or by milk casein content. Healthy volunteers of both sexes were fed iso-lactose loads of two low-protein milks, i.e., human [Hum] (n = 8) and casein-deprived cow milk (Cow [↓Cas]) (n = 10), as well as loads of two high-protein milks, i.e., cow (n = 7), and casein-added human-milk (Hum [↑Cas]) (n = 7). Plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, incretins and amino acid concentrations were measured for 240′. All milks induced the same transient hyperglycemia. The early [20′–30′] insulin and C-peptide responses were comparable among all milk types apart from the low-protein (Cow [↓Cas]) milk, where they were reduced by <50% (p < 0.05 vs. others). When comparing the two high-protein milks, GLP-1 and GIP [5’–20’] responses with the (Hum [↑Cas]) milk were lower (by ≈2–3 fold, p < 0.007 and p < 0.03 respectively) than those with cow milk, whereas incretin secretion was substantially similar. Plasma amino acid increments largely reflected the milk protein content. Thus, neither casein milk content, nor incretin or amino acid concentrations, can account for the specific potency of human milk on insulin secretion, which remains as yet unresolved
2022
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3441848
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