Recognized worldwide for its history, flavor, and high nutritional quality, Grana Padano (GP) is one of the most traditional Italian raw-milk, hard-cooked, long-ripened cheese. Throughout GP manufacturing, some well-known and undesired bacterial species, such as clostridia, can proliferate and lead to spoilage defects that mischaracterize the final product; however, little is known about the development of late-blowing defects in hard cheese samples without clostridia. Therefore, in this study we aimed to use metataxonomic analysis to identify bacterial taxa associated with the development of late-blowing defect in GP samples. Furthermore, the presence of several heterofermentative lactobacilli species in defective zones were verified by primer-specific PCR assay. Considering α- and β-diversity analyses, no statistically significant differences were detected between cheese samples with and without blowing defect. Following taxonomic assignment, Lactobacillus and Streptococcus were the dominant genera, whereas clostridia-related taxa were not detected in any of the 20 analyzed samples. Using EdgeR, the genera Propionibacterium and Acinetobacter were found to be prevalently more abundant in samples categorized as having “big regular holes.” In samples with “small regular holes,” multiplex PCR amplification revealed differences in terms of Lactobacillus population composition, mainly obligate homofermentative lactobacilli, between defective and non-defective zones of the same cheese wheel. This study demonstrated that GP samples with blowing defects not caused by clostridial development share similar biodiversity indices with GP collected from control zones, but an imbalance of obligate homofermentative lactobacilli was noticed between samples, which requires further analysis to better comprehend the exact mechanism involved in this process.

Assessment of the microbiological origin of blowing defects in Grana Padano Protected Designation of Origin cheese

da Silva Duarte V.;Lombardi A.;Corich V.
;
Giacomini A.
2022

Abstract

Recognized worldwide for its history, flavor, and high nutritional quality, Grana Padano (GP) is one of the most traditional Italian raw-milk, hard-cooked, long-ripened cheese. Throughout GP manufacturing, some well-known and undesired bacterial species, such as clostridia, can proliferate and lead to spoilage defects that mischaracterize the final product; however, little is known about the development of late-blowing defects in hard cheese samples without clostridia. Therefore, in this study we aimed to use metataxonomic analysis to identify bacterial taxa associated with the development of late-blowing defect in GP samples. Furthermore, the presence of several heterofermentative lactobacilli species in defective zones were verified by primer-specific PCR assay. Considering α- and β-diversity analyses, no statistically significant differences were detected between cheese samples with and without blowing defect. Following taxonomic assignment, Lactobacillus and Streptococcus were the dominant genera, whereas clostridia-related taxa were not detected in any of the 20 analyzed samples. Using EdgeR, the genera Propionibacterium and Acinetobacter were found to be prevalently more abundant in samples categorized as having “big regular holes.” In samples with “small regular holes,” multiplex PCR amplification revealed differences in terms of Lactobacillus population composition, mainly obligate homofermentative lactobacilli, between defective and non-defective zones of the same cheese wheel. This study demonstrated that GP samples with blowing defects not caused by clostridial development share similar biodiversity indices with GP collected from control zones, but an imbalance of obligate homofermentative lactobacilli was noticed between samples, which requires further analysis to better comprehend the exact mechanism involved in this process.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3444190
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