Background: The viral community has the potential to influence the structure of the microbiome and thus the yield of the anaerobic digestion process. However, the virome composition in anaerobic digestion is still under-investigated. A viral induction experiment was conducted on separate batches undergoing a series of DNA-damaging stresses, in order to coerce temperate viruses to enter the lytic cycle.Results: The sequencing of the metagenome revealed a viral community almost entirely composed of tailed bacteriophages of the order Caudovirales. Following a binning procedure 1,092 viral and 120 prokaryotic genomes were reconstructed, 64 of which included an integrated prophage in their sequence.Clustering of coverage profiles revealed the presence of species, both viral and microbial, sharing similar reactions to shocks. A group of viral genomes, which increase under organic overload and decrease under basic pH, uniquely encode the yopX gene, which is involved in the induction of temperate prophages. Moreover, the in-silico functional analysis revealed an enrichment of sialidases in viral genomes. These genes are associated with tail proteins and, as such, are hypothesised to be involved in the interaction with the host. Archaea registered the most pronounced changes in relation to shocks and featured behaviours not shared with other species. Subsequently, data from 123 different samples of the global anaerobic digestion database was used to determine coverage profiles of host and viral genomes on a broader scale.Conclusions: Viruses are key components in anaerobic digestion environments, shaping the microbial guilds which drive the methanogenesis process. In turn, environmental conditions are pivotal in shaping the viral community and the rate of induction of temperate viruses. This study provides an initial insight into the complexity of the anaerobic digestion virome and its relation with the microbial community and the diverse environmental parameters.

Analysis of the anaerobic digestion metagenome under environmental stresses stimulating prophage induction

Rossi, Alessandro;Morlino, Maria Silvia;Basile, Arianna;Treu, Laura;Campanaro, Stefano
2022

Abstract

Background: The viral community has the potential to influence the structure of the microbiome and thus the yield of the anaerobic digestion process. However, the virome composition in anaerobic digestion is still under-investigated. A viral induction experiment was conducted on separate batches undergoing a series of DNA-damaging stresses, in order to coerce temperate viruses to enter the lytic cycle.Results: The sequencing of the metagenome revealed a viral community almost entirely composed of tailed bacteriophages of the order Caudovirales. Following a binning procedure 1,092 viral and 120 prokaryotic genomes were reconstructed, 64 of which included an integrated prophage in their sequence.Clustering of coverage profiles revealed the presence of species, both viral and microbial, sharing similar reactions to shocks. A group of viral genomes, which increase under organic overload and decrease under basic pH, uniquely encode the yopX gene, which is involved in the induction of temperate prophages. Moreover, the in-silico functional analysis revealed an enrichment of sialidases in viral genomes. These genes are associated with tail proteins and, as such, are hypothesised to be involved in the interaction with the host. Archaea registered the most pronounced changes in relation to shocks and featured behaviours not shared with other species. Subsequently, data from 123 different samples of the global anaerobic digestion database was used to determine coverage profiles of host and viral genomes on a broader scale.Conclusions: Viruses are key components in anaerobic digestion environments, shaping the microbial guilds which drive the methanogenesis process. In turn, environmental conditions are pivotal in shaping the viral community and the rate of induction of temperate viruses. This study provides an initial insight into the complexity of the anaerobic digestion virome and its relation with the microbial community and the diverse environmental parameters.
2022
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3462623
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