Fusarium species are ubiquitous pathogens causing opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients. Clinical presentation depends on a host’s immunity and can be localized or disseminated. Since there are few reports of disseminated fusariosis in children, we described an unusual case of Fusarium solani infection in a 9-year-old child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This patient presented a deep wound in the elbow at diagnosis. During the induction phase of chemotherapy, he developed multiple skin lesions and severe pneumonia; Fusarium solani was cultured from the skin lesions. He was treated with a high dose of liposomal amphotericin B, followed by voriconazole. Starting from this peculiar case, we collected all patients with acute leukemia affected by Fusarium infection, treated in the pediatric Onco-Hematology Division of Padua University Hospital during the last 20 years. We identified another six cases: all these patients were affected by acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and five of them presented a relapsed/refractory disease. Two out of seven patients died because of infection; five patients recovered from infection, but three out of seven died because of leukemia. Skin lesions in immunocompromised patients should rise the suspicion of disseminated fusariosis. Furthermore, considering the emergence of filamentous fungi in immunocompromised patients, we all should be aware of Fusarium infection, reminding us that the diagnosis is important to cure the infection.

Systemic fusariosis: A rare complication in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Biddeci G.;Dona' D.;Geranio G.;Spadini S.;Biffi A.;
2020

Abstract

Fusarium species are ubiquitous pathogens causing opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients. Clinical presentation depends on a host’s immunity and can be localized or disseminated. Since there are few reports of disseminated fusariosis in children, we described an unusual case of Fusarium solani infection in a 9-year-old child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This patient presented a deep wound in the elbow at diagnosis. During the induction phase of chemotherapy, he developed multiple skin lesions and severe pneumonia; Fusarium solani was cultured from the skin lesions. He was treated with a high dose of liposomal amphotericin B, followed by voriconazole. Starting from this peculiar case, we collected all patients with acute leukemia affected by Fusarium infection, treated in the pediatric Onco-Hematology Division of Padua University Hospital during the last 20 years. We identified another six cases: all these patients were affected by acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and five of them presented a relapsed/refractory disease. Two out of seven patients died because of infection; five patients recovered from infection, but three out of seven died because of leukemia. Skin lesions in immunocompromised patients should rise the suspicion of disseminated fusariosis. Furthermore, considering the emergence of filamentous fungi in immunocompromised patients, we all should be aware of Fusarium infection, reminding us that the diagnosis is important to cure the infection.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3365970
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