A novel series of twenty-seven cinnamides constituted by cinnamic acid derivatives liked to 1-aryl piperazines were synthesized and evaluated for their potential inhibitory diphenolase activity of mushroom tyrosinase. Among them, the presence of a 3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl moiety at the N-1 position of piperazine ring was essential for a potent tyrosinase inhibitory effect, with the 3-nitrocinnamoyl (19p) and 2-chloro-3-methoxycinnamoyl (19t) derivatives as the most potent compounds of the series, with IC50 of 0.16 and 0.12 μM, respectively, resulting much active than kojic acid, whose IC50 value was 17.76 μM. In general, all compounds characterized by the presence of a 1-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)piperazine moiety showed an excellent potency, and the nature, position and number of the substituents on the aryl of the cinnamic acid did not affect significantly the anti-tyrosinase activity. The molecular docking to the active site of the enzyme has been also performed to investigate the nature of enzyme-inhibitor interactions. Furthermore, for selected highly active compounds, their ability to inhibit melanogenesis in the A375 human melanoma cells and in vivo zebrafish model was also evaluated. One of the most potent compounds of series (19t) significantly reduced the pigmentation of zebrafish at 50 μM, unfortunately showing 100% mortality in the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity (FET) test at the same concentration, Moreover, the zebrafish assay reveals that also compound 19r (IC50:0.51 μM against mushroom tyrosinase) effectively reduces melanogenesis with no acute toxicity effects and it could be proposed as potential candidate to treat tyrosinase-mediated hyperpigmentation.

Cinnamic acid derivatives linked to arylpiperazines as novel potent inhibitors of tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis

Corallo D.;Aveic S.;Mariotto E.;Viola G.;Bortolozzi R.
2022

Abstract

A novel series of twenty-seven cinnamides constituted by cinnamic acid derivatives liked to 1-aryl piperazines were synthesized and evaluated for their potential inhibitory diphenolase activity of mushroom tyrosinase. Among them, the presence of a 3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl moiety at the N-1 position of piperazine ring was essential for a potent tyrosinase inhibitory effect, with the 3-nitrocinnamoyl (19p) and 2-chloro-3-methoxycinnamoyl (19t) derivatives as the most potent compounds of the series, with IC50 of 0.16 and 0.12 μM, respectively, resulting much active than kojic acid, whose IC50 value was 17.76 μM. In general, all compounds characterized by the presence of a 1-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)piperazine moiety showed an excellent potency, and the nature, position and number of the substituents on the aryl of the cinnamic acid did not affect significantly the anti-tyrosinase activity. The molecular docking to the active site of the enzyme has been also performed to investigate the nature of enzyme-inhibitor interactions. Furthermore, for selected highly active compounds, their ability to inhibit melanogenesis in the A375 human melanoma cells and in vivo zebrafish model was also evaluated. One of the most potent compounds of series (19t) significantly reduced the pigmentation of zebrafish at 50 μM, unfortunately showing 100% mortality in the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity (FET) test at the same concentration, Moreover, the zebrafish assay reveals that also compound 19r (IC50:0.51 μM against mushroom tyrosinase) effectively reduces melanogenesis with no acute toxicity effects and it could be proposed as potential candidate to treat tyrosinase-mediated hyperpigmentation.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3416637
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