Background & Aims: Bacterial infections are frequent in patients with cirrhosis and increase the risk of death and drop-out from liver transplant (LT) waiting list. In patients with bacterial infections, LT is frequently delayed because of the fear of poor outcomes. We evaluated the impact of pre-LT infections on post-LT complications and survival. Methods: From 2012 to 2018, consecutive patients transplanted at the Hospital of Padua were identified and classified in two groups: patients surviving an episode of bacterial infection within 3 months before LT (study group) and patients without infections before LT (control group). Post-LT outcomes (complications, new infections, survival) were collected. Results: A total of 466 LT recipients were identified (study group n = 108; control group n = 358). After LT, the study group had a higher incidence of new bacterial (57% vs. 20%, p <0.001) and fungal infections (14% vs. 5%, p = 0.001) and of septic shock (8% vs. 2%, p = 0.004) than the control group. Along with the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score and alcohol-related cirrhosis, bacterial infection pre-LT was an independent predictor of post-LT infections (odds ratio = 3.92; p <0.001). Nevertheless, no significant difference was found in 1-year (88% vs. 89%, p = 0.579) and 5-year survival rates (76% vs. 75%, p = 0.829) between the study group and control group. Within the study group, no association was found between the time elapsed from infection improvement/resolution to LT and post-LT outcomes. Conclusions: Patients with pre-LT infections have a higher risk of new bacterial and fungal infections and of septic shock after LT. However, post-LT survival is excellent. Therefore, as soon as the bacterial infection is improving/resolving, transplant should not be delayed, but patients with pre-transplant bacterial infections require active surveillance for infections after LT. Impact and Implications: Bacterial infections increase mortality and delay transplant in patients with cirrhosis awaiting liver transplantation (LT). Little is known about the impact of adequately treated infections before LT on post-transplant complications and outcomes. The study highlights that pre-LT infections increase the risk of post-LT infections, but post-LT survival rates are excellent despite the risk. These findings suggest that physicians should not delay LT because of concerns about pre-LT infections, but instead should actively monitor these patients for infections after surgery.

Impact of bacterial infections prior to liver transplantation on post-transplant outcomes in patients with cirrhosis

Incicco S.;Tonon M.;Gambino C.;Barone A.;Zilio G.;Feltracco P.;Burra P.;Cillo U.;Angeli P.;Piano S.
2023

Abstract

Background & Aims: Bacterial infections are frequent in patients with cirrhosis and increase the risk of death and drop-out from liver transplant (LT) waiting list. In patients with bacterial infections, LT is frequently delayed because of the fear of poor outcomes. We evaluated the impact of pre-LT infections on post-LT complications and survival. Methods: From 2012 to 2018, consecutive patients transplanted at the Hospital of Padua were identified and classified in two groups: patients surviving an episode of bacterial infection within 3 months before LT (study group) and patients without infections before LT (control group). Post-LT outcomes (complications, new infections, survival) were collected. Results: A total of 466 LT recipients were identified (study group n = 108; control group n = 358). After LT, the study group had a higher incidence of new bacterial (57% vs. 20%, p <0.001) and fungal infections (14% vs. 5%, p = 0.001) and of septic shock (8% vs. 2%, p = 0.004) than the control group. Along with the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score and alcohol-related cirrhosis, bacterial infection pre-LT was an independent predictor of post-LT infections (odds ratio = 3.92; p <0.001). Nevertheless, no significant difference was found in 1-year (88% vs. 89%, p = 0.579) and 5-year survival rates (76% vs. 75%, p = 0.829) between the study group and control group. Within the study group, no association was found between the time elapsed from infection improvement/resolution to LT and post-LT outcomes. Conclusions: Patients with pre-LT infections have a higher risk of new bacterial and fungal infections and of septic shock after LT. However, post-LT survival is excellent. Therefore, as soon as the bacterial infection is improving/resolving, transplant should not be delayed, but patients with pre-transplant bacterial infections require active surveillance for infections after LT. Impact and Implications: Bacterial infections increase mortality and delay transplant in patients with cirrhosis awaiting liver transplantation (LT). Little is known about the impact of adequately treated infections before LT on post-transplant complications and outcomes. The study highlights that pre-LT infections increase the risk of post-LT infections, but post-LT survival rates are excellent despite the risk. These findings suggest that physicians should not delay LT because of concerns about pre-LT infections, but instead should actively monitor these patients for infections after surgery.
2023
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3491773
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