Glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide worldwide, targets the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) enzyme in the shikimate pathway found in plants and some microorganisms. While the potential for glyphosate to induce a broad range of biological effects in exposed organisms has been demonstrated, the global molecular mechanisms of toxicity and potential effects in bacterial symbionts remain unclear, in particular for ecologically important marine species such as bivalve molluscs. Here, the effects of glyphosate (GLY), its degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and a mixture of both (MIX) on the mussel M. galloprovincialis were assessed in a controlled experiment. For the first time, next generation sequencing (RNA-seq and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing) was used to evaluate such effects at the molecular level in both the host and its respective microbiota. The results suggest that the variable capacity of bacterial species to proliferate in the presence of these compounds and the impairment of host physiological homeostasis due to AMPA and GLY toxicity may cause significant perturbations to the digestive gland microbiota, as well as elicit the spread of potential opportunistic pathogens such as Vibrio spp.. The consequent host-immune system activation identified at the molecular and cellular level could be aimed at controlling changes occurring in the composition of symbiotic microbial communities. Overall, our data raise further concerns about the potential adverse effects of glyphosate and AMPA in marine species, suggesting that both the effects of direct toxicity and the ensuing changes occurring in the host-microbial community must be taken into consideration to determine the overall ecotoxicological hazard of these compounds.

The effects of glyphosate and AMPA on the mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and its microbiota

Iori S.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Dalla Rovere G.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Smits M.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Ferraresso S.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Babbucci M.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Marin M. G.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Masiero L.;Fabrello J.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Carraro L.;Cardazzo B.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Patarnello T.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Matozzo V.
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Bargelloni L.
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Milan M.
Supervision
2020

Abstract

Glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide worldwide, targets the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) enzyme in the shikimate pathway found in plants and some microorganisms. While the potential for glyphosate to induce a broad range of biological effects in exposed organisms has been demonstrated, the global molecular mechanisms of toxicity and potential effects in bacterial symbionts remain unclear, in particular for ecologically important marine species such as bivalve molluscs. Here, the effects of glyphosate (GLY), its degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and a mixture of both (MIX) on the mussel M. galloprovincialis were assessed in a controlled experiment. For the first time, next generation sequencing (RNA-seq and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing) was used to evaluate such effects at the molecular level in both the host and its respective microbiota. The results suggest that the variable capacity of bacterial species to proliferate in the presence of these compounds and the impairment of host physiological homeostasis due to AMPA and GLY toxicity may cause significant perturbations to the digestive gland microbiota, as well as elicit the spread of potential opportunistic pathogens such as Vibrio spp.. The consequent host-immune system activation identified at the molecular and cellular level could be aimed at controlling changes occurring in the composition of symbiotic microbial communities. Overall, our data raise further concerns about the potential adverse effects of glyphosate and AMPA in marine species, suggesting that both the effects of direct toxicity and the ensuing changes occurring in the host-microbial community must be taken into consideration to determine the overall ecotoxicological hazard of these compounds.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3322513
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