Bovines account for about 83% of the milk and dairy products consumed by humans worldwide, the rest represented by bubaline, caprine, ovine, camelid, and equine species, which are particularly important in areas of extensive pastoralism. Although milk is increasingly used for cheese production, the cheese-making efficiency of milk from the different species is not well known. This study compares the cheese-making ability of milk sampled from lactating females of the 6 dairy species in terms of milk composition, coagulation properties (using lactodynamography), curd-firming modeling, nutrients recovered in the curd, and cheese yield (through laboratory model-cheese production). Equine (donkey) milk had the lowest fat and protein content and did not coagulate after rennet addition. Buffalo and ewe milk yielded more fresh cheese (25.5 and 22.9%, respectively) than cow, goat, and dromedary milk (15.4, 11.9, and 13.8%, respectively). This was due to the greater fat and protein contents of the former species with respect to the latter, but also to the greater recovery of fat in the curd of bubaline (88.2%) than in the curd of camelid milk (55.0%) and consequent differences in the recoveries of milk total solids and energy in the curd; protein recovery, however, was much more similar across species (from 74.7% in dromedaries to 83.7% in bovine milk). Compared with bovine milk, the milk from the other Artiodactyla species coagulated more rapidly, reached curd firmness more quickly (especially ovine milk), had a more pronounced syneresis (especially caprine milk), had a greater potential asymptotical curd firmness (except dromedary and goat milk), and reached earlier maximum curd firmness (especially caprine and ovine milk). The maximum measured curd firmness was greater for bubaline and ovine milk, intermediate for bovine and caprine milk, and lower for camelid milk. The milk of all ruminant species can be used to make cheese, but, to improve efficiency, cheese-making procedures need to be optimized to take into account the large differences in their coagulation, curd-firming, and syneresis properties.

Composition and aptitude for cheese-making of milk from cows, buffaloes, goats, sheep, dromedary camels, and donkeys

Bittante G.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Amalfitano N.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Bergamaschi M.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Patel N.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Tagliapietra F.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Schiavon S.
Membro del Collaboration Group
2022

Abstract

Bovines account for about 83% of the milk and dairy products consumed by humans worldwide, the rest represented by bubaline, caprine, ovine, camelid, and equine species, which are particularly important in areas of extensive pastoralism. Although milk is increasingly used for cheese production, the cheese-making efficiency of milk from the different species is not well known. This study compares the cheese-making ability of milk sampled from lactating females of the 6 dairy species in terms of milk composition, coagulation properties (using lactodynamography), curd-firming modeling, nutrients recovered in the curd, and cheese yield (through laboratory model-cheese production). Equine (donkey) milk had the lowest fat and protein content and did not coagulate after rennet addition. Buffalo and ewe milk yielded more fresh cheese (25.5 and 22.9%, respectively) than cow, goat, and dromedary milk (15.4, 11.9, and 13.8%, respectively). This was due to the greater fat and protein contents of the former species with respect to the latter, but also to the greater recovery of fat in the curd of bubaline (88.2%) than in the curd of camelid milk (55.0%) and consequent differences in the recoveries of milk total solids and energy in the curd; protein recovery, however, was much more similar across species (from 74.7% in dromedaries to 83.7% in bovine milk). Compared with bovine milk, the milk from the other Artiodactyla species coagulated more rapidly, reached curd firmness more quickly (especially ovine milk), had a more pronounced syneresis (especially caprine milk), had a greater potential asymptotical curd firmness (except dromedary and goat milk), and reached earlier maximum curd firmness (especially caprine and ovine milk). The maximum measured curd firmness was greater for bubaline and ovine milk, intermediate for bovine and caprine milk, and lower for camelid milk. The milk of all ruminant species can be used to make cheese, but, to improve efficiency, cheese-making procedures need to be optimized to take into account the large differences in their coagulation, curd-firming, and syneresis properties.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3412583
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