Metabolomics approaches, such as direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS), allow characterising many polar and non-polar compounds useful as authentication biomarkers of dairy chains. By using both a partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and a linear discriminant analysis (LDA), this study aimed to assess the capability of DART-HRMS, coupled with a low-level data fusion, discriminate among milk samples from lowland (silages vs. hay) and Alpine (grazing; APS) systems and identify the most informative biomarkers associated with the main dietary forage. As confirmed also by the LDA performed against the test set, DART-HRMS analysis provided an accurate discrimination of Alpine samples; meanwhile, there was a limited capacity to correctly recognise silage- vs. hay-milks. Supervised multivariate statistics followed by metabolomics hierarchical cluster analysis allowed extrapolating the most significant metabolites. Lowland milk was characterised by a pool of energetic compounds, ketoacid derivates, amines and organic acids. Seven informative DART-HRMS molecular features, mainly monoacylglycerols, could strongly explain the metabolomic variation of Alpine grazing milk and contributed to its classification. The misclassification between the two lowland groups confirmed that the intensive dairy systems would be characterised by a small variation in milk composition.

Ambient mass spectrometry for rapid authentication of milk from Alpine or lowland forage

Riuzzi G.;Lanza I.;Novelli E.;Gottardo F.;Segato S.
2022

Abstract

Metabolomics approaches, such as direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS), allow characterising many polar and non-polar compounds useful as authentication biomarkers of dairy chains. By using both a partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and a linear discriminant analysis (LDA), this study aimed to assess the capability of DART-HRMS, coupled with a low-level data fusion, discriminate among milk samples from lowland (silages vs. hay) and Alpine (grazing; APS) systems and identify the most informative biomarkers associated with the main dietary forage. As confirmed also by the LDA performed against the test set, DART-HRMS analysis provided an accurate discrimination of Alpine samples; meanwhile, there was a limited capacity to correctly recognise silage- vs. hay-milks. Supervised multivariate statistics followed by metabolomics hierarchical cluster analysis allowed extrapolating the most significant metabolites. Lowland milk was characterised by a pool of energetic compounds, ketoacid derivates, amines and organic acids. Seven informative DART-HRMS molecular features, mainly monoacylglycerols, could strongly explain the metabolomic variation of Alpine grazing milk and contributed to its classification. The misclassification between the two lowland groups confirmed that the intensive dairy systems would be characterised by a small variation in milk composition.
2022
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3456169
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