: Udder health has a crucial role in sustainable milk production, and various reports have pointed out that changes in udder condition seem to affect milk mineral content. The somatic cell count (SCC) is the most recognized indicator for the determination of udder health status. Recently, a new parameter, the differential somatic cell count (DSCC), has been proposed for a more detailed evaluation of intra-mammary infection patterns. Specifically, the DSCC is the combined proportions of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and lymphocytes (PMN-LYM) on the total SCC, with macrophages (MAC) representing the remainder proportion. In this study, we evaluated the association between DSCC in combination with SCC on a detailed milk mineral profile in 1,013 Holstein Friesian cows reared in 5 herds. An Inductively Coupled Plasma- Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used to quantify 32 milk mineral elements. Two different linear mixed models were fitted to explore the associations between the milk mineral elements and first, the DSCC combined with SCC, and second, DSCC expressed as the PMN-LYM and MAC counts, obtained by multiplying the proportion of PMN-LYM and MAC by SCC. We observed a significant positive association between SCC and milk Na, S and Fe levels. Differential somatic cell count showed an opposite behavior to the one displayed by SCC, with a negative association with Na and positive association with K milk concentrations. When considering DSCC as count, Na and K showed contrasting behavior when associated to PMN-LYM or MAC counts, with decreasing of Na content and increasing K when associated to increasing PMN-LYM counts, and increasing Na and decreasing K when associated to increasing MAC count. These findings confirmed that an increase in SCC is associated with altered milk Na and K amounts. Moreover, MAC count seemed to mirror SCC patterns, with the worsening of inflammation. Differently, PMN-LYM count exhibited patterns of associations with milk Na and K contents attributable more to LYM than PMN, given the non-pathological condition of the vast majority of the investigated population. An interesting association was observed for milk S content, which increased with increasing of inflammatory conditions (i.e., increased SCC and MAC count) probably attributable to its relationship with milk proteins, especially whey proteins. Moreover, milk Fe content showed positive associations with the PMN-LYM population, highlighting its role in immune regulation during inflammation. Further studies including individuals with clinical condition are needed to have a comprehensive view of milk mineral behavior during udder health impairment.

Novel insights into the associations between immune cell population distribution in mammary glands and milk minerals in Holstein cows

Giannuzzi, Diana;Vanzin, Alice;Pegolo, Sara
;
Toscano, Alessandro;Bisutti, Vittoria;Gallo, Luigi;Schiavon, Stefano;Cecchinato, Alessio
2024

Abstract

: Udder health has a crucial role in sustainable milk production, and various reports have pointed out that changes in udder condition seem to affect milk mineral content. The somatic cell count (SCC) is the most recognized indicator for the determination of udder health status. Recently, a new parameter, the differential somatic cell count (DSCC), has been proposed for a more detailed evaluation of intra-mammary infection patterns. Specifically, the DSCC is the combined proportions of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and lymphocytes (PMN-LYM) on the total SCC, with macrophages (MAC) representing the remainder proportion. In this study, we evaluated the association between DSCC in combination with SCC on a detailed milk mineral profile in 1,013 Holstein Friesian cows reared in 5 herds. An Inductively Coupled Plasma- Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used to quantify 32 milk mineral elements. Two different linear mixed models were fitted to explore the associations between the milk mineral elements and first, the DSCC combined with SCC, and second, DSCC expressed as the PMN-LYM and MAC counts, obtained by multiplying the proportion of PMN-LYM and MAC by SCC. We observed a significant positive association between SCC and milk Na, S and Fe levels. Differential somatic cell count showed an opposite behavior to the one displayed by SCC, with a negative association with Na and positive association with K milk concentrations. When considering DSCC as count, Na and K showed contrasting behavior when associated to PMN-LYM or MAC counts, with decreasing of Na content and increasing K when associated to increasing PMN-LYM counts, and increasing Na and decreasing K when associated to increasing MAC count. These findings confirmed that an increase in SCC is associated with altered milk Na and K amounts. Moreover, MAC count seemed to mirror SCC patterns, with the worsening of inflammation. Differently, PMN-LYM count exhibited patterns of associations with milk Na and K contents attributable more to LYM than PMN, given the non-pathological condition of the vast majority of the investigated population. An interesting association was observed for milk S content, which increased with increasing of inflammatory conditions (i.e., increased SCC and MAC count) probably attributable to its relationship with milk proteins, especially whey proteins. Moreover, milk Fe content showed positive associations with the PMN-LYM population, highlighting its role in immune regulation during inflammation. Further studies including individuals with clinical condition are needed to have a comprehensive view of milk mineral behavior during udder health impairment.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3494631
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