In this study we wanted to investigate the associations between naturally occurring subclinical IMI caused by different etiological agents (i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Prototheca spp.), in combination with SCC, on the detailed milk protein profile measured at the individual mammary gland quarter. An initial bacteriological screening (time 0; T0) conducted on individual composite milk from 450 Holstein cows reared in 3 herds, was performed to identify cows with subclinical IMI. We identified 78 infected animals which were followed up at the quarter level at 2 different sampling times: T1 and T2, 2 and 6 weeks after T0, respectively. A total of 529 quarter samples belonging to the previously selected animals were collected at the 2 sampling points and analyzed with a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) validated method. Specifically, we identified and quantified 4 caseins (CN), namely αS1-CN, αS2-CN, κ-CN, and β-CN, and 3 whey protein fractions, namely β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, and lactoferrin (LF), which were later expressed both quantitatively (g/L) and qualitatively (as a percentage of the total milk nitrogen content, %N). Data were analyzed with a hierarchical linear mixed model with the following fixed effects: days in milk (DIM), parity, herd, SCC, bacteriological status (BACT), and the SCC × BACT interaction. The random effect of individual cow, nested within herd, DIM and parity was used as the error term for the latter effects. Both IMI (i.e., BACT) and SCC significantly reduced the proportion of β-CN and αS1-CN, ascribed to the increased activity of both milk endogenous and microbial proteases. Less evident alterations were found for whey proteins, except for LF, which being a glycoprotein with direct and undirect antimicrobial activity, increased both with IMI and SCC, suggesting its involvement in the modulation of both the innate and adaptive immune response. Finally, increasing SCC in the positive samples was associated with a more marked reduction of total caseins at T1, and αS1-CN at T2, suggesting a synergic effect of infection and inflammation, more evident at high SCC. In conclusion, our work helps clarify the behavior of protein fractions at quarter level in animals having subclinical IMI. The inflammation status driven by the increase in SCC, rather the infection, was associated with the most significant changes, suggesting that the activity of endogenous proteolytic enzymes related to the onset of inflammation might have a pivotal role in directing the alteration of the milk protein profile.

Effect of intramammary infection and inflammation on milk protein profile assessed at the quarter level in Holstein cows

Bisutti, V;Vanzin, A;Pegolo, S
;
Toscano, A;Gianesella, M;Sturaro, E;Schiavon, S;Gallo, L;Tagliapietra, F;Giannuzzi, D;Cecchinato, A
2024

Abstract

In this study we wanted to investigate the associations between naturally occurring subclinical IMI caused by different etiological agents (i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Prototheca spp.), in combination with SCC, on the detailed milk protein profile measured at the individual mammary gland quarter. An initial bacteriological screening (time 0; T0) conducted on individual composite milk from 450 Holstein cows reared in 3 herds, was performed to identify cows with subclinical IMI. We identified 78 infected animals which were followed up at the quarter level at 2 different sampling times: T1 and T2, 2 and 6 weeks after T0, respectively. A total of 529 quarter samples belonging to the previously selected animals were collected at the 2 sampling points and analyzed with a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) validated method. Specifically, we identified and quantified 4 caseins (CN), namely αS1-CN, αS2-CN, κ-CN, and β-CN, and 3 whey protein fractions, namely β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, and lactoferrin (LF), which were later expressed both quantitatively (g/L) and qualitatively (as a percentage of the total milk nitrogen content, %N). Data were analyzed with a hierarchical linear mixed model with the following fixed effects: days in milk (DIM), parity, herd, SCC, bacteriological status (BACT), and the SCC × BACT interaction. The random effect of individual cow, nested within herd, DIM and parity was used as the error term for the latter effects. Both IMI (i.e., BACT) and SCC significantly reduced the proportion of β-CN and αS1-CN, ascribed to the increased activity of both milk endogenous and microbial proteases. Less evident alterations were found for whey proteins, except for LF, which being a glycoprotein with direct and undirect antimicrobial activity, increased both with IMI and SCC, suggesting its involvement in the modulation of both the innate and adaptive immune response. Finally, increasing SCC in the positive samples was associated with a more marked reduction of total caseins at T1, and αS1-CN at T2, suggesting a synergic effect of infection and inflammation, more evident at high SCC. In conclusion, our work helps clarify the behavior of protein fractions at quarter level in animals having subclinical IMI. The inflammation status driven by the increase in SCC, rather the infection, was associated with the most significant changes, suggesting that the activity of endogenous proteolytic enzymes related to the onset of inflammation might have a pivotal role in directing the alteration of the milk protein profile.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3501945
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