With this review paper we provide an overview of the main degradation mechanisms that limit the long-term reliability of IR semiconductor lasers for silicon photonics applications. The discussion is focused on two types of laser diodes: heterogeneous III–V lasers bonded onto silicon-on-insulator wafers, and InAs quantum-dot lasers epitaxially grown on silicon. A compre-hensive analysis of the reliability-oriented literature published to date reveals that state-of-the-art heterogeneous laser sources share with conventional laser diodes their major epitaxy-related degradation processes, such as the generation of non-radiative recombination centers or dopant diffusion, while eliminating cleaved facets and exposed mirrors. The lifetime of InAs quantum dot lasers grown on silicon, whose development represents a fundamental step toward a fully epitaxial integration of future photonic integrated circuits, is strongly limited by the density of extended defects, mainly misfit dislocations, protruding into the active layer of the devices. The concentration of such defects, along with inefficient carrier injection and excessive carrier overflow rates, promote recombination-enhanced degradation mechanisms that reduce the long-term reliability of these sources. The impact of these misfits can be largely eliminated with the inclusion of blocking layers.

A review of the reliability of integrated ir laser diodes for silicon photonics

Buffolo M.;De Santi C.;Meneghesso G.;Zanoni E.;Meneghini M.
2021

Abstract

With this review paper we provide an overview of the main degradation mechanisms that limit the long-term reliability of IR semiconductor lasers for silicon photonics applications. The discussion is focused on two types of laser diodes: heterogeneous III–V lasers bonded onto silicon-on-insulator wafers, and InAs quantum-dot lasers epitaxially grown on silicon. A compre-hensive analysis of the reliability-oriented literature published to date reveals that state-of-the-art heterogeneous laser sources share with conventional laser diodes their major epitaxy-related degradation processes, such as the generation of non-radiative recombination centers or dopant diffusion, while eliminating cleaved facets and exposed mirrors. The lifetime of InAs quantum dot lasers grown on silicon, whose development represents a fundamental step toward a fully epitaxial integration of future photonic integrated circuits, is strongly limited by the density of extended defects, mainly misfit dislocations, protruding into the active layer of the devices. The concentration of such defects, along with inefficient carrier injection and excessive carrier overflow rates, promote recombination-enhanced degradation mechanisms that reduce the long-term reliability of these sources. The impact of these misfits can be largely eliminated with the inclusion of blocking layers.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3412521
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